*2013 5th anniversary
Despite preseason forecasts for an active hurricane season this year sees the fewest Atlantic hurricanes since 1982 and the first season since 1968 with no Category 2 hurricanes of higher.
Hurricane Manuel strikes the Pacific coast of Mexico, causing 123 deaths and US$4 billion in damage.
The Pacific typhoon season is the deadliest since 1975, with 13 typhoons of which 5 were Supertyphoons.
Supertyphoon Haiyan strikes the Philippines leaving 8000 dead in its wake.
•2008 10th anniversary
The THORPEX Pacific-Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC), an international, multi-agency scientific experiment, is conducted in the western Pacific. Typhoons are investigated by aircraft reconnaissance along with other concentrated monitoring.
The first superob are transmitted in real-time for ingestion into operational models during a mission into Hurricane Fay.
Very Severe Cyclone Nargis hits Burma causing $10 billion in damage and causing nearly 140,000 deaths.
Typhoon Fengshen ravages the Philippines before striking Hong Kong and southern China. Over 1300 people are killed and damage reaches nearly $480 million.
Hurricane Gustav sweeps over the western end of Cuba then makes landfall in Louisiana bringing tornadoes and heavy floods. It caused over 100 casualties and over $6.5 billion in destruction.
Hurricane Ike followed Gustav by about a week, crossing the Bahamas and Cuba before impacting Texas in the Galveston-Houston area. Many people living on the Bolivar Peninsula didn’t evacuated and had to be rescued from the 12 foot storm surge which destroyed the majority of the homes in the area. Over one hundred people died from Ike and damage exceeded $37 billion.
Hurricane Norbert hits the Baja Peninsula, killing 25 people and causing $720 million in damage.
Tropical Storm Marco becomes the smallest tropical cyclone in the Atlantic hurricane database.
Late-season Hurricane Paloma ravages the Cayman Islands and eastern Cuba causing over $450 million in damage.
•2003 15th anniversary
Paper on the wind structure of the hurricane boundary layer based on the new GPS dropsondes is published. Hurricane forecasters reconsider the notion of “vertical evacuation” due to the data presented.
Super Typhoon Imbudo strikes the northern Philippines and southern China resulting in 64 dead and $340 million in damage.
Hurricane Fabian rakes Bermuda resulting in $300 million in destruction and killing eight people.
Hurricane Isabel hits the mid-Atlantic states resulting in over $5 billion in damage and dozens of deaths.
Typhoon Maemi rakes South Korea, one of the worst storms to hit that country. 117 people die and over $4 billion in destruction occurs.
•1998 20th anniversary
An Arabian Sea cyclone near Gujarat claims over 10,000 dead or missing and $3 billion destruction.
NASA inaugurates its Convection and Moisture Experiment 3 (CAMEX-3) in which their research aircraft coordinate with HRD’s Hurricane Field Program to examine the three-dimensional structure of Hurricanes Bonnie, Danielle, and Georges.
Hurricane Georges rakes the Florida Keys before making landfall in Biloxi. It resulted in over 600 deaths in the Caribbean and United States with over $9 billion in ruin.
Typhoon Babs ravages the Philippines, killing over 300 people and resulting in $145 million in destruction.
Hurricane Mitch lingers off the Honduran coast as a Category Five hurricane, sinking the sailboat Fantome. It eventually comes ashore much weakened but dumps tremendous rainfall over Central America which kills over 19,000 people.
•1993 25th anniversary
Hurricane Calvin rakes the Mexican Pacific coast from Acapulco to the Baja Peninsula, killing 34 people (mostly in floods) and causing $32 million in damages.
Hurricane Gert intensifies in the Gulf of Mexico before hitting the Veracruz area resulting in over 100 deaths and $170 million in damage.
A Very Severe Cyclone in the Arabian Sea dissipates before coming ashore, but spawns floods over Pakistan that claim over 600 lives.
•1988 30th anniversary
Hurricane Gilbert plows a path of destruction across the Caribbean, Yucatan, and Mexican Gulf coast. Casualties exceed 400, over $7 billion in damage is recorded, and its central pressure prior to hitting the Yucatan is estimated at 888 millibars, a record at that time for Atlantic hurricanes.
Typhoon Ruby capsizes a ferry in the Philippines killing nearly 400 people.
Hurricane Joan strikes the ABC islands before hitting Nicaragua as a major hurricane. Estimated deaths exceed 300 and damage almost exceeds $2 billion. Joan’s remnants reform in the eastern Pacific as Tropical Storm Miriam.
A tropical cyclone swamps western Bangladesh leave 2000 dead and 6000 missing. An additional thousand casualties are created over Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia due to heavy rains in its early stages.
•1983 35th anniversary
Project STORMFURY officially brought to an end.
Hurricane Alicia forms from an old frontal trough over the Gulf of Mexico and hits the Galveston-Houston area killing 22 and racking up $2 billion in damage, mostly to downtown Houston.
Typhoon Forrest becomes one of the fastest deepening tropical cyclones on record when its central pressure drops by 100 millibars over 24 hours. Forrest spawns a tornado over Inza Island and results in over 20 deaths in Japan.
The remnants of eastern Pacific Tropical Storm Octave bring heavy rains to Arizona, killing 14 people and causing $375 million in damage.
Hurricane Tico, likewise, brings heavy rainfall to Texas and the southern Plains after ravaging the Mexican Pacific coast killing 135 people.
•1978 40th anniversary
Tropical Cyclone Alby hits Western Australia killing five people and fanning fires to consume hundreds of thousands of hectares of forrest and farm.
Hurricane Fico travels from Mexican Pacific waters to Hawaii and eventually Midway. It is the longest lived eastern Pacific hurricane to that point and high surf from the storm wreaks havoc on Hawaiian shorelines.
Super Typhoon Rita stays at Category Five intensity for three days before weakening slightly then slamming into Luzon resulting heavy damage and high casualties.
A tropical cyclone strikes Ceylon (Sri Lanka) killing 915.
•1973 45th anniversary
The Saffir-Simpson scale goes into use by the National Hurricane Center.
The term ‘neutercane’ is first employed by NHC in public bulletins to describe a species of subtropical cyclone. However, confusion over the term results in NOAA demanding that NHC cease use of the term.
Hurricane Ava becomes the first Category Five hurricane recorded in the eastern Pacific. A test flight of a passive microwave sensor in flown aboard NOAA’s C-130 aircraft into Ava to see if hurricane-force winds could be estimated by surface emissions.
Super Typhoon Nora deepens to a record setting 877 millibars before whacking Luzon and later southern China. 18 were killed and over $2 million in damage caused by this storm.
•1968 50th anniversary
Charlie Neumann and John Hope create a database of Atlantic hurricanes on punch cards. Intended for a NASA-funded study on the hurricane threat to Cape Canaveral, the data set becomes the basis of the HURDAT.
Harry Hawkins and Daryl Rubsam publish an influential paper on hurricane structure based on research flights into Hurricane Hilda (1964).
•1963 55th anniversary
The “Salalah” cyclone becomes the first Arabian Sea storm flown by research aircraft as part of the International Indian Ocean Expeditions. Once ashore in Oman the storm winds bring first a blinding sandstorm then drenching rains.
Working independently, Vic Ooyama and the team of Jule Charney and Arnt Eliasson postulate tropical cyclone formations theories. Both theories attempt to explain how thunderstorms in disturbances can become organized despite the unfavorable subsidence generated by the widely distributed convection.
Project STORMFURY successfully seeds Hurricane Beulah on two successive days while it is northeast of Puerto Rico.
Hurricane Flora ravages the Caribbean and stalls over Cuba, dumping prodigious rains and killing thousands in the floods.
Super Cyclone Storm Number Three in the Northern Indian Ocean kills 11,500 people in East Pakistan.
Hurricane Ginny does two loops off the southeastern US (causing multiple evacuations) before bringing high seas, snow and heavy rain to New England and the Canadian Maritimes.
•1958 60th anniversary
Marjory Stoneman Douglas, a frequent visitor to the National Hurricane Research Project, publishes her popular history entitled “Hurricane”.
The first computer-generated real-time hurricane track forecast is made by the University of Chicago for Hurricane Becky. Barotropic model developed by Akira Kasahara, George Platzman, Gene Birchfield, and Bob Jones. The actual computer runs are accomplished by Jones and Lester Hubert at NMC/JNWP unit.
Typhoon Ophelia cuts a swath of destruction across Jaluit Atoll, Ponape, Truk, and Yap and finally brings down an Air Force reconnaissance plane, claiming the lives of all ten crewmen.
The Navy Hurricane Hunters successfully launch “Brango’s Ball” into the eye of Hurricane Helene. This radar-reflective inflated ball floats on the sea surface and can be tracked remotely.
Air Force/NHRP aircraft release a radio beacon balloon into the eye of Hurricane Helene and are able to track it remotely while it moves along near the center of circulation. Bob Simpson wins a steak dinner from Herb Riehl since the hurricane circulation doesn’t push the beacon out of the eye.
•1953 65th anniversary
Tropical Storm Alice becomes the first Atlantic tropical cyclone to be officially given a women’s name by the Weather Bureau.
Super Typhoon Tess strikes central Japan resulting in over 400 casualties.
In mid-December, a Navy Typhoon Tracker plane is lost during a reconnaissance of Typhoon Doris. All nine personnel on-board are lost.
•1948 70th anniversary
Two major hurricanes strike south Florida within two weeks of each other. Both do substantial damage to western Cuba and the Bahamas as well, before moving northeast out to sea. This is the second year in a row for south Florida to be hit by two destructive hurricanes.
Eric Palmen publishes his seminal paper on tropical cyclones demonstrating the need for waters of at least 80 F for formation to occur. He also attempts to map out hurricane vertical structure by compositing balloon soundings near or in the eye of storms.
Typhoon Ione hits Japan and kills nearly 840 people.
•1943 75th anniversary
The US Weather Bureau relocates its Jacksonville Hurricane Warning Center to Miami, collocating it with similar forecast centers for the Navy and Army Air Corps.
Maj. Joe Duckworth flies his AT-6 Texan aircraft into the “Surprise Hurricane’s” eye near Houston. He repeats the flight later that same day so the base meteorologist can take observations.
For the first time, a real-time aircraft observation from the center of a hurricane is relayed to the Miami Hurricane Warning Center and made available for analysis.
A hurricane strikes Mazatlán with little warning. A flight carrying Walt Disney, his family, and employees is forced to make an emergency landing there and they ride out the storm at the airport. The storm destroys many buildings and kills about 100 people.
Floods associated with a typhoon claim 990 lives in Japan.
•1938 80th anniversary
The Long Island Express comes roaring out of the tropics at 60 mph, striking New England and killing over 600 people.
The Mokapu Cyclone hits the Oahu unannounced causing heavy vegetation damage.
•1933 85th anniversary
The second most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, with 20 tropical storms, eleven of which became hurricanes and six of them were major. With the possibility that activity in the eastern Atlantic might have been missed, there is a chance that this season was as active or more so than 2005. With all but two of the known storms making landfall, nearly 650 casualties and $87 million in damages were caused throughout the Atlantic basin.
•1928 90th anniversary
The San Felipe (Segundo) or Okeechobee hurricane strikes Guadeloupe killing 1200 people, then hits Puerto Rico at peak strength taking 300 lives. It eventually smacks Florida and causes the earthen dikes around Lake Okeechobee to fail claiming ~2500 casualties.
•1918 100th anniversary
A major cyclone strikes Mackay, Queensland, killing thirty. Communication with the town is cut off for five days before news of the tragedy reaches the outside and help can arrive.
Less than two months later another major cyclone hits Queensland at Innisfail. Some 90 people die and nearly every house is ruined.
•1913 105th anniversary
Oliver Fassig (USWB) publishes “Hurricanes of the West Indies”
•1908 105th anniversary
The only known March hurricane in the Atlantic formed on March 6th northeast of the Leeward islands and move southwesterly near Antigua before dissipating on March 9th.
•1903 115th anniversary
The “Vagabond” hurricane strikes New Jersey killing over 30 people and doing $8 million in damage.
The “Inchulva” hurricane rakes the Bahamas and south Florida, sinking the ship Inchulva taking nine crew members to a watery grave. Most of the damage is done to crops along its path in the Bahamas, Florida, and Alabama.1898 120th anniversary
In anticipation of war with Spain, the U.S. Weather Bureau establishes a hurricane forecast center in Jamaica.
Fr. Benito Viñes’s work on the structure and movement of hurricanes is published in English by the U.S. Weather Bureau.
Two hurricanes strike the Georgia coast this year, including a major hurricane in late September which claimed 180 lives. This is the last major hurricane on record to make landfall in Georgia.
•1893 125th anniversary
During mid-August of this year, four hurricanes were occurring simultaneously in the Atlantic basin with three of them major storms.
One of the deadliest years for hurricanes in the United States, the “Sea Islands” hurricanes claims ~2000 lives along the Georgia coast, “Chenier Caminada” hurricane kills 2000 in Louisiana, and The Charleston Hurricane left 28 dead through the Carolinas.
For only the second time in the 19th Century, a hurricane makes a direct strike on New York City.
•1873 145th anniversary
The recently organized weather service of the U.S. Army Signal Corp issues its first hurricane warning.
•1858 160th anniversary
A rare California hurricane strikes San Diego causing extensive damage to homes and ships.
•1848 170th anniversary
The Smithsonian Museum organizes a network of weather observers across the United States and its territories.
•1838 180th anniversary
Lt. Col. William Reid (Royal Engineers) publishes his “Law of Storms” which advises mariners on how to avoid the heavy weather side of hurricanes at sea.
•1743 275th anniversary
Ben Franklin’s attempts to observe a lunar eclipse are frustrated by a hurricane. He later learns the same storm struck Boston after Philadelphia even though the wind had blown from the northeast. Concludes that storms can move contrary to the wind direction.
•1703 315th anniversary
A severe storm (possibly a hurricane) strikes England. Daniel Defoe gathers eyewitness accounts and publishes them in “The Storm”.
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